- Ol’ga A. Krasheninnikova
- A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature
- Anonymous letters of the 18th сentury as a fact of literature
- Krasheninnikova O.A. Anonymous letters of the 18th сentury as a fact of literature. Vestnik of Kostroma State University, 2020, vol. 26, № 1, pp. 102–108 (in Russ.). DOI 10.34216/1998-0817-2020-26-1-102-108
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The article is devoted to the analysis of a special genre of "people's journalism" of the 18th century – a genre of so-called letters placed stealthily that were widely spread in Russia in the first half of the 18th century and have never become the subject of special research. These rare, anonymous, preserved mainly in manuscript form monuments of literature, according to the author, can be rightfully attributed to the genre of fiction. The article highlights the characteristic genre features of the swept letter, lists various thematic groups of such letters. As the most striking example of works in this genre the author analyses the content of the famous anonymous letter as of 1732, an outstanding work of journalism of the era of Anna Ioannovna, devoted to criticism of the Church heretics and Ernst Johann von Biron. Investigation of the 1732 letter had been conducted in the Secret Chancellery for years and came to nothing. In the text of the letter, heterogeneous in its content, the features of various literary traditions are traced – high book-biblical vocabulary and motifs coming from the traditions of the old believers accusatory and agitation literature. The most likely candidate for authorship of the letter is, according to our hypothesis, the former Director of the first St. Petersburg printing house Mikhail Avramov (1681-1752), a gifted writer and publicist, associate and adherent of Archimandrite Markell Radyshevskiy (†1742), the leader of the conservative Church opposition of the first third of the 18th century.
anonymous letter, 18th century journalism, political denunciation, corporate letters, accusatory, agitation letters, Markell Radyshevskiy, Mikhail Avramov.
- Literature list:
Donos na otkupshchikov i kompaneishchikov, raskhishchaiushich khkaznu i spaivaiushichkh narod, imperatritse Anne Ivanovne [A denunciation of tax-farmers and company manages, plundering the Treasury and soldering the people, addressed to the Empress Anna Ivanovna]. Chteniia v imperatorskom obshchestve istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom Universitete [Readings at the Imperial society of Russian history and antiquities at Moscow University]. Moscow, V Universitet. Tipografii Publ., 1866, vol. 1, Smes', pp. 8–13. (In Russ.)
Esipov G. Raskol'nich'i dela XVIII stoletiia, izvlechennye iz del Preobrazhenskogo prikaza i Tainoi rozysknykh del kantseliarii [Schismatic cases of the XVIII century, extracted from the cases of the Preobrazhensky order and Secret search cases of the office]. Saint-Petersburg, Tip. Tov-va «Obshchestvennaia pol'za» Publ., 1861, vol. 1, 654 p. (In Russ.)
Izvestnoe podmetnoe pis'mo 1732 goda [Famous anonymous letter of 1732]. Ocherki istorii russkoi publitsistiki XVIII veka [Essays on the history of Russian journalism of the XVIII century]. Moscow, IMLI RAN Publ., 2017, pp. 448–470. (In Russ.)
Istoriia pechatnaia o Petre Velikom. Sobranie ot Sviatago Pisaniia o Antikhriste [Printed history of Peter the Great. Collection from the Holy Scripture about the Antichrist]. Chteniia v Imperatorskom obshchestve istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom Universitete [Readings at the Imperial society of Russian history and antiquities at Moscow University.]. Moscow, V Universitet. Tipografii Publ., 1863, vol. 1, Smes', pp. 52–71. (In Russ.)
Krasheninnikova O.A. Podmetnoe pis'mo 1732 goda i ego predpolagaemyi avtor [An anonymous letter from 1732 and its intended author]. Ocherki istorii russkoi publitsistiki XVIII veka [Essays on the history of Russian journalism of the XVIII century]. Moscow, IMLI RAN Publ., 2017, pp. 409–447. (In Russ.)
Krasheninnikova O.A. «Indeks otrechennykh knig» arkhimandrita Markella Radyshevskogo [«Index of renounced books» of Archimandrite MarcellRadyshevskii]. Dva veka russkoi klassiki [Two Centuries of the Russian Classics], 2019, vol. 1, № 1–2, pp. 8–33. (In Russ.)
Kurukin I.V., Nikulina E.A. Povsednevnaia zhizn' tainoi kantseliarii [Daily life of the secret office]. Moscow, Molodaia gvardiia Publ., 2008, 638 p. (In Russ.).
Pis'ma i doneseniia iezuitov o Rossii kontsa XVII i nachala XVIII vv. [Letters and reports of the Jesuits about Russia of the late XVII and early XVIII centuries]. Irzhi David. Sovremennoe sostoianie Velikoi Rossii, ili Moskovii, podgot. A.I. Tsepkov [Irzhi David. The current state of great Russia, or Muscovy, ed. by A.I. Tsepkov]. Riazan', Aleksandriia Publ., 2010, 333 p. (In Russ.)
Podmetnoe pis'mo gosudariu imperatoru Petru Pervomu [Anonymous letters to the Emperor Peter the Great]. Chteniia v imperatorskom obshchestve istorii i drevnostei rossiiskikh pri Moskovskom Universitete [Readings at the Imperial society of Russian history and antiquities at Moscow University]. Moscow, V Universitet. Tipografii Publ.,1860, vol. 2, Smes', pp. 27–30. (In Russ.)
Chistovich I.A. Reshilovskoe delo: Feofan Prokopovich i Feofilakt Lopatinskii: Materialy dlia istorii pervoi poloviny XVIII stoletiia [Reshilov case: Feofan Prokopovich and Feofilakt Lopatinsky: Materials for the history of the first half of the XVIII century]. Saint-Petersburg, Tip. dukhov. zhurn. «Strannik» Publ., 1861, 64, 31 p. (In Russ.).
- Ol’ga A. Krasheninnikova, Candidate of Philological Sciences, senior staff scientist of A.M. Gorky Institute of World Literature of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia E-mail: info@imli