Vitaly V. Zharkov
Yaroslavl Higher Military School of Air Defense
Viktor V. Tatochenko
Yaroslavl Higher Military School of Air Defense
Zharkov V.V., Tatochenko V.V. Reviewing social politics of Russia on the example of regulation of labor relations in the XIII-XVIII centuries. Vestnik of Kostroma State University, 2022, vol. 28, № 4, pp. 7–13. https://doi.org/10.34216/1998-0817-2022-28-4-7-13
DOI: https://doi.org/10.34216/1998-0817-2022-28-4-7-13
УДК: 94(470) “13/18”
Publish date: 2022-11-30
Annotation: The issue of legislative regulation of labor relations in Russia of the XIII-XVIII centuries is considered. The analysis of the Russian law monuments (Russkaya Pravda, Pskov Judgment Letter of 1497, Sudebnik Ivan III of 1497, Sudebnik Ivan IV of 1550, the Cathedral Code of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich of 1649, imperial and senate decrees of the XVIII century, legal acts of Peter I for the study of the social policy of the Russian state in the XIII-XVIII centuries. The regulatory documents of the selected period are analyzed from the point of view of the relationship between the provisions of these documents that defined labor relations and the general trends in the development of the country in order to describe the general course of development of labor legislation during this period and demonstrate its connection with the development of serfdom, the needs of the state, as well as to show the limitations of regulation that caused social unrest in the future. The place and role of legislative acts in the general system of socio-political life of the country is determined. Their significance and influence on the social policy of the state are studied. The vector of development of the state through the prism of regulation of labor relations is highlighted. Among the analyzed normative legal acts, a case was highlighted when the law first stood up for the protection of an employee, but it was difficult to develop these positive trends in the conditions of the emerging policy of enslavement of peasants. The state did not try to comprehensively regulate the issues of labor relations, thereby provoking social discontent and unrest. The analysis of sources demonstrates the insufficiency of representation of the interests of the employee in the labor legislation, with the exception of a range of jobs that are especially important for the state.
Keywords: the origin of labor relations in Russia, Russian monuments of labor law, free hiring, serfdom, landowner, peasant.
Literature list: Vojtinskij I.S. Trudovoe pravo: Diktatura burzhuazii i trudovoe pravo [Labor law: The dictatorship of the bourgeoisie and labor law]: uchebnoe posobie. Mosсow, Sov. zakonodatel'stvo Publ., 1934, ch. 1, 224 p. (In Russ.) Dogadov V.M. Ocherki trudovogo prava [Essays on labor law]. Mosсow, Priboj Publ., 1927, 163 p. (In Russ.) Zimin A.A. Pravda Russkaya [The truth is Russian]. Mosсow, Drevlekhranilishche Publ., 1999, 424 p. (In Russ.) Istoriya Rossii s nachala XVIII do konca XIX veka [The history of Russia from the beginning of the XVIII to the end of the XIX century]. Mosсow, Izd-vo AST-LTD Publ., 1997, 544 p. (In Russ.) Kinyapina N.S. Politika russkogo samoderzhaviya v oblasti pro-myshlennosti (20–50-e gg. XIX v.) [The policy of the Russian autocracy in the field of industry (20–50-ies of the XIX century)]. Mosсow, Moskovskij universitet Publ., 1968, 454 p. (In Russ.) Lushnikov A.M., Lushnikova M.V. Kurs trudovogo prava: v 2 t. T. 1. Sushchnost' trudovogo prava i istoriya ego razvitiya. Trudovye prava v sisteme prav cheloveka [Course of labor law: textbook: in 2 vols. Vol. 1. The essence of labor law and the history of its development. Labor rights in the human rights system]. Moscow, Statut Publ., 2009, 879 p. (In Russ.) Lushnikova M.V., Lushnikov A.M. Ocherki teorii trudovogo prava [Essays on the theory of labor law]. St. Peterburg, Yurid. centr Press Publ., 2006, 938 p. (In Russ.) Man'kov A.G. Ulozhenie 1649 g. – kodeks feodal'nogo prava Rossii [The Code of 1649 – the Code of Feudal Law of Russia]. Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1980, 271 p. (In Russ.) Nisselovich L.N. Istoriya zavodsko-fabrichnogo zakonodatel'stva Rossijskoj Imperii. [History of the factory legislation of the Russian Empire]. St. Peterburg, Ministerstvo finansov Publ., 1883, 359 p. (In Russ.) Sobolev S.A. Istoriya stanovleniya trudovogo dogovora v Rossii [The history of the formation of an employment contract in Russia]. Gosudarstvo i pravo [State and law], 2002, № 2, pp. 93-102. (In Russ.) Fedorov A.F. Fabrichnoe zakonodatel'stvo civilizovannyh gosudarstv. O rabote maloletnih i zhenshchin na fabrika. [Factory legislation of civilized states. About the work of minors and women at the factory]. St. Peterburg, Tip. G. Dyuntca Publ., 1884, 402 p. (In Russ.) Hohlov E.B. Ocherki istorii pravovogo regulirovaniya truda v Rossii. Ch. 1. Pravovoe regulirovanie truda v Rossijskoj imperii [Essays on the history of legal regulation of labor in Russia. P. 1. Legal regulation of labor in the Russian Empire]. St. Peterburg, SPbGU Publ., 1999, 196 p. (In Russ.) Yakovlev A.I. Holopstvo i holopy v Moskovskom gosudarstve XVII v. [Serfdom and serfs in the Moscow state of the XVII century]: in 2 vols. Vol. 1. Mosсow; Leningrad, Nauka Publ., 1943, 493 p. (In Russ.)
Author's info: Vitaly V. Zharkov, candidate of historical sciences, Yaroslavl Higher Military School of Air Defense, Yaroslavl, Russian Federation, vitally-zharkov@mail.ru, https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1427-6027
Co-author's info: Viktor V. Tatochenko, candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, Yaroslavl Higher Military School of Air Defense, Yaroslavl, Russian Federation, tatochenko.84@mail.ru. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2564-5425